INITIAL CREDITS Hi, this is Evan at the Conservation Lab at the Biblioteca Ludwig von Mises at Universidad Francisco Marroquín and what we'll be doing today is some basic paper repair for books.
We'll start with pages that have come out and continue through rips, and then finally repair a soft cover book in a simple way.
MATERIALS PVA and a brush, a small iron, teflon bone folder, straight edge along with a scalpel, paper knife or microspatula, and then scissors, then blotter, some release paper, Filmoplast or a heat-set adhesive, Japanese paper or long fiber tissue, some newsprint or craft paper, some Reemay or Hollytex and finally two boards and a light weight.
PROCEDURE The first thing we'll do is take a book that has a page that came out, and so we have one here.
So, this is a pretty common problem specially for paperback books and when you have a page out, many times, you know, you are not sure how to put it back in, if they are there at all, if you don't have them at all what you should try to do is get a copy from another library or another institution or if it's online, print it out, make it the same size and then prepare so that it can be put back into the book.
But the repair for this, it sounds simple and in theory I mean it is, but it's surprisingly difficult.
All you're going to do is take some PVA glue, dab it upon the edge of the spine here, just a little bit and then you're going to put it in.
You're just going to kind of jam in it basically.
The problem when you do this, though, is no matter how hard you try, often times your page, after you finish, would still stick out.
This is an exaggeration but it'll still stick out somewhat.
definitely not as much as that, but it'll still stick out something like that.
So, you can tell where the repair was and that's not ideal.
I mean it will not affect the book structurally too much, but it has a chance to come out easier next time also if it is like that.
So, you just want to make sure that you put it in as deep as you can and with experience, you can get it in there pretty well.
A lot of times people use a brush.
I think this brush is way too big for this.
So, if you were going to use a brush you'd like a brush that's very thin, very small.
What I'm going to do is use actually just my pinky, and that's pretty common too.
You could also use a.
something like a microspatula would be fine but like I said, a thin brush or a lot of people use their pinky too.
So, I'm just going to put a dab, just a bit all along and I'm putting a very little amount, just along actually the edge of the paper, that's all I want and that's way too much.
Now, I want just in the edge of the paper, just enough to get it to stick in there and I use my pinky.
I'm using straight PVA.
Now, you don't want too much glue obviously because if there's too much your page is going to be hard to read because it won't open as well if it's sticking to is neighboring pages.
If you use a brush, you could brush on the adhesive knowing that it's a little heavy but then dab some off, that's a pretty way to do it too, and I'm almost there.
And that's kind of even, that's pretty even, I can run my finger across it and I can feel the tact when I do this, feel the tact of the glue, so I did get some glue on the other side a little more than I'd like, so, I'm going to take some craft paper and dab some off, and that's the excess glue that I took off there.
So, I'm going to put this in where it should go, wipe off my hands first on my towel and put it in.
Lining it up at the head and tail can also be difficult and what I'm going to do is just close it.
It's page 501.
Just close it.
And I can set that aside for a while, let it dry.
I do think using Reemay and blotters is a good idea here.
I'm going to put them in, maybe a little too late again, so here we go.
Yeah, I should have put them in sooner but it will work.
So, you can see already the page is going to stick and it is going to stay in there which is what we want, and so that's the repair you're going to do, it's very simple, but again, the problem is the first times you do it you will have pages that you can tell where you fixed it.
So, that's the first one.
That's the first repair for a page that's come out.
Next, we're going to do some tears, fix some tears and we'll use that with heat-set tissue.
We are using in this case Filmoplast R and a small iron which is to my right, and we have some cuts here that we can fix, actually the same book, page 125.
And what we have here is this tear right here.
So, what we'll do actually is a Filmoplast R repair heat-set tissue, but if you look closely at the tear you'll see that there is what's called a scarf which is where the tears overlap, where one edge is overlapping on the other.
It's difficult to see because specially in white paper, it all very much looks the same but I can tell from looking at this that there is an overlap.
I can see the letters on the other side of the page so that it's an overlap and for a high quality repair, instead of using a heat-set tissue, a heat-set adhesive, I'm just going to use PVA glue and just get it in those scarves because it'll be more.
it'll be not less invasive but it'll be less obvious than a Filmoplast adhesive.
Filmoplast or other heat-set adhesives you will be able to see them later, so don't expect that your repair is going to be invisible but they're so useful specially in large collections when you have a lot of paper repairs and paper damages that a lot of times it's just in your best interest to understand when to use it and how to use it.
So, I'm going to start with the heat-set repair and then do the scarves at the end, so, the way I want to do that is I have some Filmoplast just cut into little strips but I want to make these strips a little smaller.
These strips are still a little too long, still a little too big and I can do better than that.
This is too bulky at repair, but basically there's adhesive on one side of this tissue and with heat the adhesive activates and then it will grasp, it'll adhere the two pages together.
So, it's basically like tape, it's just a little more archival, a little more neutral and the adhesive won't run as quickly as tape will run.
So, the way to do this is I want to make sure I have my iron ready and I have my iron pretty hot.
Many people would recommend to have a moderately hot iron but I tend to prefer one that's a little hotter and maybe I'll use a tick or a moderately tick piece of paper as an intermediary between the iron and what I'm fixing to offset some of that extra heat.
So, what I'll do is put down a piece of release paper under it, silicone release is fine, or we have some that was of roller Mylar which is an easy alternative also.
So, I'm going to put that under, so when I use the iron to adhere the two pieces together, none of the adhesive would go through to the page under it.
Next, I want to actually cut my piece of Filmoplast a little more to size, I can make, like I said, my repair a little more closely tight to what the tear actually is.
So, I'm going to actually make mine into small strips, and do a number of small strips.
So, I have the Filmoplast.
I'm going to use my blade instead of scissors.
Now, I want to make this wide enough to cover the tear but not too wide so that they obstruct anything on the page and if they're too small and they don't cover the tear, I mean it's a useless repair.
So, I'm going to use these to start from, and I'm going to plan where I'm going to put the strips.
I'm going to do one strip across the front like so.
I'm going to do.
Where there's a curve in the tear, I'm going to use a different strip.
You'll be able to see here.
I'm going to use the iron and actually just set this down and go piece by piece down across this tear and I need an intermediary, like I said, so the iron won't force the adhesive onto the neighboring page and won't dirty up the page.
So, I need to put this down, it makes a little harder because you are not actually able to see if your strip has moved or anything like that when you've done it but now I'm just going to iron it over.
And it's set.
So the adhesive was activated and I'm going to clip it right there.
So that's the first band-aid.
And you can see, I didn't mention it, but you can see how right here I went over the page and that's fine, that actually makes it easier to cut your repair flush with the page after.
So, I'm going to cut that directly off in a minute.
So, now following the curve, I'm going to put this section down next.
I also like a hot iron because I don't have too much time.
it doesn't take too much time to activate the adhesive.
I'm just going to continue this all the way down and I know I mention scarf tears but this tear won't even need it to be done.
But if you do have tears where there's an overlap of your papers, just put a little PVA in the overlap, set it down in between Reemay and blotter and a light weight, for about ten minutes and then it would.
that's a great repair: easy, simple and effective, and you need by far less materials than iron and heat-set tissue.
So, if it's scarf tear try to fix that first.
So, like I said I'm just going to continue on down.
You can cut your strips before hand to size, but I like using the entire strip and then cutting off where I need to.
And I'm just at the final part of the tear.
OK, so I have that, I'm going to cut off this bit right now, that overhanging bit, but I need to cut on something that will protect my text spot so I'm going to put some light board under there.
I'm going to take a blade and making sure not going to the text, I'm just going to slice.
For the best repair you want to do both sides.
So, I'm going just turn it around and since this is a small end of the book, I'm going to stack it up like this.
Just so it doesn't harm the book when I keep it like this.
I mean, you can see this repair, but this book is certainly usable again and it has drastically reduced chance of getting torn off that bit.
So, if you have the opportunity, invest in a tacking iron and in some heat-set tissue because it's certainly worth it.
So, what I'm doing is reinforcing the repair that I did on the other side, in the same manner.
And I'm not putting too much pressure down on the iron.
It's very hard to see the tear on this end, it's good but.
and this should be my last strip.
Now, I'm going to cut off the overhanging bit of the head, and that's the repair.
You can do this repair for any type of book, brittle paper, gray paper, but like I said, you will be able to see it.
This is not an invisible repair.
So, be sure that it's in your collection's and your institution's best interest to.
That it's OK.
That the use of your book is going to be more important than the aesthetic value of it.
So keep that in mind.
But other than that, it's in my opinion a very useful and almost necessary tool to have.
Moving on, we're going to do a mix of a Japanese paper repair and heat-set tissue repair.
This is for a soft-cover book where we're going to use.
where there's been some lost, so we're going to fill it in by simply just putting together, using a layer of Japanese tissue and then putting another layer of Filmoplast just to kind of reinforce where we insert the tissue.
So, this is the cover.
This is the cover of the book that we are going to fix, in particular this edge down here, you see there's a little bit of loss, so what we are going to do is put some Japanese tissue with PVA and we are going to put it there oversized.
I shall do now, and again if the book.
if the page that you're going to repair is near the front or near the back, it's going to be hard to work on it unless you stand it up like I'm doing now.
So, I’m about to put this on but it seems like this Japanese paper is much too thin and it's kind of.
it's going to be floppy when it hangs out on its own.
So, if you have a heavier weight Japanese paper, you should use that and we do here in the preservation lab.
This is a much heavier weight tissue, long fiber paper, and it just feels better and when people use it, it's not going to flap up and down, that's just going to be fine.
So, it still got fuzzy edges and I'm going to just put it on the same way.
So, I'm gluing just about five millimeters or centimeters onto the tissue and I'm going to overlap that section onto the paper and I'm going to bone this down with my bone folder pretty strongly actually, so, I'm putting a bit of weight down on it, and this will happen too, the edges will stick a little bit so make sure you have your microspatula around or a paper knife and you'll be able to lift that with no problem, and that should be fine.
So, this is going to be the core of our repair here and really give it the strength and weight so that it feels like and looks like a continuation of our original cover and act like our original cover.
The next step is going to be to reinforce the repair on this side with some more heat-set tissue and I'm going to take another strip of tissue and my tear is pretty straight here so I might just use one strip continuously, probably two, and I'm going to put the release paper under, the repair paper over and some craft paper to interleave And that looks pretty good.
Now, I'm going to do the bottom half here, I'm just going to put it down like there temporarily, put it down where I wanted temporarily, take the craft paper, put it over and then holding everything down put the iron on.
Cut, put this down on the little overhanging bit.
So, you have a reinforce repair here with similar weight on the cover, all it needs now is just to be trimmed so that it doesn't overhang the text block.
So, what I'm going to do is line it up here, put this down, take my straightedge, follow the fore edge, in this case the fore edge is actually.
the fore edge of the cover is actually a little smaller than the fore edge of the text but I want to continue what is on the cover, or else it just would look weird.
It might pull.
So, this is going to be better and the same thing at the tail, and that's that.
I'm just going to round this corner just a tiny bit so it's not a sharp, and that's the cover.
So, what we went through today was a few things, first was putting back in a page that came out of your book and it's really just as simple as using a small bit of PVA or glue as you can, and putting it back in, then we went through a paper repair using heat-set tissue and an iron and also, finally infilling losses on your cover.